ASME BPVC.I-2021

2021 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I: Rules for Construction of Power Boilers

STANDARD by ASME International, 07/01/2021


Full Description

Product Scope / Abstract

This Section provides requirements for all methods of construction of power, electric, and miniature boilers; high temperature water boilers, heat recovery steam generators, and certain fired pressure vessels to be used in stationary service; and power boilers used in locomotive, portable, and traction service. Rules pertaining to use of the ASME Certification Mark and V, A, M, PP, S and E Designators are also included. The rules are applicable to boilers in which steam or other vapor is generated at a pressures exceeding 15 psig, and high temperature water boilers intended for operation at pressures exceeding 160 psig and/or temperatures exceeding 250 degree F.  Superheaters, economizers, and other pressure parts connected directly to the boiler without intervening valves are considered as part of the scope of Section I.

Careful application of this Section will help users to comply with applicable regulations within their jurisdictions, while achieving the operational, cost and safety benefits to be gained from the many industry best-practices detailed within these volumes.

Intended for manufacturers, users, constructors, designers and others concerned with the design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection and testing of pressure vessels, plus all potential governing entities.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Sections... . . . . . . . . . xxiv

Foreword... . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvi

Statement of Policy on the Use of the ASME Single Certification Mark and Code Authorization in Advertising xxviii

Statement of Policy on the Use of ASME Marking to Identify Manufactured Items. xxviii

Submittal of Technical Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix

Personnel... . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxii

Preamble... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liii

Summary of Changes... . . . . . lv

List of Changes in Record Number Order.. . . . . . . . . . . lviii

Cross-Referencing and Stylistic Changes in the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. . lix

Part PG General Requirements for All Methods of Construction . . . . . . . . 1

General.. . . . . . . . . 1

PG-1 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 1

PG-2 Service Limitations.. 1

PG-3 Referenced Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

PG-4 Units of Measure.. . 1

Materials.. . . . . . . . 2

PG-5 General.. . . . . . . . . 2

PG-6 Plate.. . . . . . . . . . . 3

PG-7 Forgings.. . . . . . . . 3

PG-8 Castings.. . . . . . . . . 3

PG-9 Pipes, Tubes, and Pressure-Containing Parts. 4

PG-10 Material Identified With or Produced to a Specification Not Permitted by

This Section, and Material Not Fully Identified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

PG-11 Prefabricated or Preformed Pressure Parts Furnished Without a

Certification Mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

PG-12 Water Level Indicators and Connector Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

PG-13 Stays.. . . . . . . . . . . 11

PG-14 Rivets.. . . . . . . . . . 11

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 11

PG-16 General.. . . . . . . . . 11

PG-17 Fabrication by a Combination of Methods. . . 12

PG-18 Design Validation by Proof Test. . . . . . . . . . 12

PG-19 Cold Forming of Austenitic Materials. . . . . . 12

PG-20 Cold Forming of Carbon, Carbon-Molybdenum, and Creep Strength

Enhanced Ferritic Steels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

PG-21 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure. . . . . 15

iii

PG-22 Loadings.. . . . . . . . 16

PG-23 Stress Values for Calculation Formulas. . . . . 16

PG-25 Quality Factors for Steel Castings. . . . . . . . . 16

PG-26 Weld Joint Strength Reduction Factor. . . . . . 18

PG-27 Cylindrical Components Under Internal Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

PG-28 Components Under External Pressure. . . . . . 23

PG-29 Dished Heads.. . . . . 25

PG-30 Stayed Dished Heads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

PG-31 Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers. . . . . . . . . . 27

Openings and Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . 31

PG-32 Openings in Shells, Headers, and Dished Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

PG-33 Compensation Required for Openings in Shells and Dished Heads . . . . 32

PG-34 Flanged-In Openings in Formed Heads. . . . . 35

PG-35 Compensation Required for Openings in Flat Unstayed Heads and Flat

Stayed Plates.. . . 35

PG-36 Limits of Metal Available for Compensation. . 36

PG-37 Strength of Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

PG-38 Compensation for Multiple Openings. . . . . . . 37

PG-39 Methods of Attachment of Pipe and Nozzle Necks to Vessel Walls . . . . 38

PG-42 General Requirements for Flanges, Pipe Fittings, and Valves . . . . . . . . 39

PG-43 Nozzle Neck Thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

PG-44 Inspection Openings.42

PG-46 Stayed Surfaces.. . . 43

PG-47 Staybolts.. . . . . . . . 44

PG-48 Location of Staybolts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

PG-49 Dimensions of Staybolts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

PG-50 Drilled Holes Not Penetrating Through a Vessel Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

PG-52 Ligaments.. . . . . . . 44

PG-53 Ligaments.. . . . . . . 47

PG-55 Supports and Attachment Lugs. . . . . . . . . . . 49

PG-56 Loading on Structural Attachments. . . . . . . . 49

Boiler External Piping and Boiler Proper Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

PG-58 Boiler External Piping (BEP). . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

PG-59 Application Requirements for the Boiler Proper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Design and Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

PG-60 Design and Application Requirements for Miscellaneous Pipe, Valves, and

Fittings.. . . . . . . 61

PG-61 Feedwater Supply.. 64

Overpressure Protection Requirements. . . . . 64

PG-67 Boiler.. . . . . . . . . . 64

PG-68 Superheater and Reheater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

PG-69 Certification of Capacity of Pressure Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

PG-70 Capacity of Pressure Relief Valves. . . . . . . . . 79

PG-71 Mounting of Pressure Relief Valves. . . . . . . . 79

PG-72 Operation of Pressure Relief Valves. . . . . . . . 80

PG-73 Minimum Requirements for Pressure Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

iv

Fabrication.. . . . . . 85

PG-75 General.. . . . . . . . . 85

PG-76 Cutting Plates and Other Stock. . . . . . . . . . . 85

PG-77 Material Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

PG-78 Repairs of Defects in Materials. . . . . . . . . . . 86

PG-79 Tube Holes and Ends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

PG-80 Permissible Out-of-Roundness of Cylindrical Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

PG-81 Tolerance for Formed Heads. . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

PG-82 Holes for Stays.. . . . 86

Inspection and Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

PG-90 General.. . . . . . . . . 87

PG-91 Qualification of Inspectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

PG-93 Examination and Repair of Flat Plate in Corner Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

PG-99 Hydrostatic Test.. . . 88

Certification by Stamping and Data Reports. . 89

PG-101 Heating Surface Computation. . . . . . . . . . . . 89

PG-104 General.. . . . . . . . . 89

PG-105 Certification Marks.. 90

PG-106 Stamping of Boilers.91

PG-107 Field Assembly.. . . . 94

PG-108 Stamping for Field-Assembled Boilers. . . . . . 94

PG-109 Stamping of Pressure Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

PG-110 Stamping of Boiler Pressure Relief Valves. . . 95

PG-111 Location of Stampings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

PG-112 Manufacturer's Data Report Forms. . . . . . . . 96

PG-113 Master Data Report Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

Part PW Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

General.. . . . . . . . . 100

PW-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 100

Materials.. . . . . . . . 100

PW-5 General.. . . . . . . . . 100

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 101

PW-8 General.. . . . . . . . . 101

PW-9 Design of Welded Joints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

PW-10 Heat Treatment.. . . 103

PW-11 Volumetric Examination of Welded Butt Joints103

PW-13 Head-to-Flange Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . 104

PW-14 Openings in or Adjacent to Welds. . . . . . . . . 104

PW-15 Welded Connections.104

PW-16 Minimum Requirements for Attachment Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

PW-17 Forged Flat Heads With Integral Hubbed Flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

PW-19 Welded-In Stays.. . . 112

Fabrication.. . . . . . 116

PW-26 General.. . . . . . . . . 116

PW-27 Welding Processes.. 116

v

PW-28 Welding Qualification and Weld Records. . . . 117

PW-29 Base Metal Preparation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

PW-31 Assembly.. . . . . . . . 118

PW-33 Alignment Tolerance, Shells and Vessels (Including Pipe or Tube Used

as a Shell).. . . . . 118

PW-34 Alignment, Tube and Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

PW-35 Finished Longitudinal and Circumferential Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

PW-36 Miscellaneous Welding Requirements. . . . . . 119

PW-38 Preheating and Interpass Temperatures. . . . . 120

PW-39 Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment. . 122

PW-40 Repair of Defects.. . 134

PW-41 Circumferential Joints in Pipes, Tubes, and Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

PW-42 Joints in Valves and Other Boiler Appurtenances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

PW-44 Fabrication Rules for Bimetallic Tubes When the Clad Strength Is Included 137

Inspection and Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

PW-46 General.. . . . . . . . . 139

PW-47 Check of Welding Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

PW-48 Check of Welder and Welding Operator Performance Qualifications . . . 139

PW-49 Check of Heat Treatment Practice. . . . . . . . . 140

PW-50 Qualification of Nondestructive Examination Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

PW-51 Radiographic Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

PW-52 Ultrasonic Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

PW-53 Test Plates.. . . . . . . 141

PW-54 Hydrostatic Test.. . . 146

Part PR Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Riveting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

General.. . . . . . . . . 148

PR-1 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 148

PR-2 Responsibility.. . . . 148

Materials.. . . . . . . . 148

PR-3 General.. . . . . . . . . 148

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 148

PR-4 General.. . . . . . . . . 148

PR-5 Strength of Plates.. . 148

PR-6 Strength of Rivets.. 148

PR-7 Crushing/Compressive Strength of Plates. . . . 148

PR-8 Joint Efficiency and the Thickness of Shells and Drums . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

PR-9 Thickness of Buttstraps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

PR-10 Longitudinal Joints.. 149

PR-11 Circumferential Joints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

PR-12 Transverse Pitch (Back Pitch) of Rows of Rivets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

PR-13 Preparation of Plate Edges for Calking. . . . . . 150

PR-14 Edge Distance.. . . . 150

PR-15 Riveted Connections.150

PR-16 Reinforcement of Openings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

PR-17 Reinforcing Shells of Watertube Boilers. . . . . 151

vi

Fabrication.. . . . . . 152

PR-18 General.. . . . . . . . . 152

PR-19 Welded Connections in Riveted Boilers. . . . . 152

PR-20 Buttstraps.. . . . . . . 152

PR-21 Rivet Holes.. . . . . . 152

PR-22 Assembly of Joints.. 153

PR-23 Riveting.. . . . . . . . . 153

PR-24 Joint Tightness.. . . . 153

Inspection, Tests, and Data Reports. . . . . . . . 153

PR-25 General.. . . . . . . . . 153

PR-26 Hammer Test.. . . . . 153

PR-27 Hydrostatic Test.. . . 153

PR-28 Data Reports.. . . . . 153

Part PB Requirements for Boilers Fabricated by Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

General.. . . . . . . . . 155

PB-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 155

Materials.. . . . . . . . 156

PB-5 General.. . . . . . . . . 156

PB-6 Brazing Filler Metals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

PB-7 Fluxes and Atmospheres. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 156

PB-8 General.. . . . . . . . . 156

PB-9 Strength of Brazed Joints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

PB-10 Brazed Joint Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

PB-14 Application of Brazing Filler Metal. . . . . . . . 156

PB-15 Permissible Types of Joints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

PB-16 Joint Clearance.. . . . 157

PB-17 Joint Brazing Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

PB-18 Openings.. . . . . . . . 157

PB-19 Brazed Connections.158

Fabrication.. . . . . . 158

PB-26 General.. . . . . . . . . 158

PB-28 Qualification of Brazing Procedure. . . . . . . . 158

PB-29 Qualification of Brazers and Brazing Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

PB-30 Cleaning of Surfaces to Be Brazed. . . . . . . . . 159

PB-31 Clearance Between Surfaces to Be Brazed. . . 159

PB-32 Postbrazing Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

PB-33 Repair of Defective Brazing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Inspection and Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

PB-46 General.. . . . . . . . . 159

PB-47 Check of Brazing Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

PB-48 Brazer and Brazing Operator. . . . . . . . . . . . 159

PB-49 Visual Examination.. 159

PB-50 Exemptions.. . . . . . 160

Marking and Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

vii

PB-51 General.. . . . . . . . . 160

Part PL Requirements for Locomotive Boilers. . . . 161

Introduction.. . . . . 161

PL-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 161

PL-2 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 161

PL-3 Testing and Stamping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

Materials.. . . . . . . . 161

PL-5 General.. . . . . . . . . 161

PL-6 In the Course of Preparation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

PL-7 Allowable Stress Values for Materials. . . . . . 164

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 164

PL-17 General.. . . . . . . . . 164

PL-18 Cylindrical Boiler Shell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

PL-20 Reinforcing and Doubling Plates on Unstayed Portions of the Boiler . . 164

PL-21 Requirements for Domes of Locomotive Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

PL-24 Flues.. . . . . . . . . . . 169

PL-27 Stayed Surfaces.. . . 169

PL-28 Mudring (Firebox Foundation Ring). . . . . . . . 174

PL-30 Staybolts.. . . . . . . . 175

PL-33 Crown Bars.. . . . . . 177

PL-36 Braces.. . . . . . . . . . 177

PL-39 Arch Tubes, Circulators, and Thermic Syphons182

PL-42 Gage Glasses and Water Columns. . . . . . . . . 185

PL-43 Boiler Blowoff Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

PL-45 Feedwater Supply.. 186

PL-48 Dry Pipe.. . . . . . . . 186

PL-54 Pressure Relief Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

Part PA Alternative Rules for Boiler Construction. 188

PA-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 188

PA-2 Code Boundaries and Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . 188

PA-3 Design Specification and Design Report. . . . . 188

PA-4 Construction.. . . . . 188

PA-4.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

PA-4.2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

PA-5 Materials.. . . . . . . . 188

PA-6 Hydrostatic Test.. . . 188

PA-7 Data Reports and Stamping. . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

PA-7.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

PA-7.2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Part PWT Requirements for Watertube Boilers. . . . . 189

General.. . . . . . . . . 189

PWT-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 189

Materials.. . . . . . . . 189

PWT-5 General.. . . . . . . . . 189

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 189

viii

PWT-8 General.. . . . . . . . . 189

PWT-9 Tubes and Pipe.. . . 189

PWT-11 Tube Connections.. . 189

PWT-12 Staybolting Box-Type Headers and Waterlegs. 191

PWT-13 Staying Segment of Heads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

PWT-14 Firing Doors.. . . . . 191

PWT-15 Access and Firing Doors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

Part PFT Requirements for Firetube Boilers. . . . . . . 192

General.. . . . . . . . . 192

PFT-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 192

Materials.. . . . . . . . 192

PFT-5 General.. . . . . . . . . 192

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 192

PFT-8 General.. . . . . . . . . 192

PFT-9 Thickness Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

PFT-10 Shell Joints.. . . . . . 192

PFT-11 Attachment of Heads and Tubesheets. . . . . . 192

PFT-12 Tubes.. . . . . . . . . . 193

Combustion Chambers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

PFT-13 Combustion Chamber Tubesheet. . . . . . . . . . 194

PFT-14 General.. . . . . . . . . 195

PFT-15 Plain Circular Furnaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

PFT-17 Ring-Reinforced Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

PFT-18 Corrugated Furnaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

PFT-19 Combined Plain Circular and Corrugated Type197

PFT-20 Attachment of Furnaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

PFT-21 Fireboxes and Waterlegs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Stayed Surfaces.. . . 199

PFT-22 General.. . . . . . . . . 199

PFT-23 Working Pressure for Stayed Curved Surfaces199

PFT-24 Staying Horizontal Return Tube Boilers. . . . . 200

PFT-25 Staying Segments of Heads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

PFT-26 Area Supported by Stay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

PFT-27 Maximum Spacing.. 201

PFT-28 Staybolts and Stays.202

PFT-29 Flexible Staybolts.. . 202

PFT-30 Crown Bars and Girder Stays. . . . . . . . . . . . 202

PFT-31 Stay Tubes.. . . . . . . 205

PFT-32 Stresses in Diagonal Stays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

Doors and Openings.206

PFT-40 Welded Door Openings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

PFT-41 Openings in Wrapper Sheets. . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

PFT-42 Fireside Access Openings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

PFT-43 Requirements for Inspection Openings. . . . . 206

PFT-44 Opening Between Boiler and Pressure Relief Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

ix

Domes.. . . . . . . . . . 206

PFT-45 Requirements for Domes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

Setting.. . . . . . . . . . 207

PFT-46 Method of Support.. 207

Piping, Fittings, and Appliances. . . . . . . . . . . 208

PFT-47 Water Level Indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

PFT-48 Feed Piping.. . . . . . 208

PFT-49 Blowoff Piping.. . . . 208

Part PFH Optional Requirements for Feedwater Heater (When Located Within

Scope of Section I Rules). . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Part PMB Requirements for Miniature Boilers. . . . . . 210

General.. . . . . . . . . 210

PMB-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 210

PMB-2 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 210

Materials.. . . . . . . . 210

PMB-5 General.. . . . . . . . . 210

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 210

PMB-8 General.. . . . . . . . . 210

PMB-9 Welding.. . . . . . . . . 210

PMB-10 Washout Openings.. 210

PMB-11 Feedwater Supply.. 211

PMB-12 Blowoff.. . . . . . . . . 211

PMB-13 Gage Glasses.. . . . . 211

PMB-14 Fixtures and Fittings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

PMB-15 Pressure Relief Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

PMB-16 Steam Stop Valves.. 211

PMB-17 Automatic Devices.. 211

PMB-21 Hydrostatic Tests and Inspection. . . . . . . . . . 211

Part PEB Requirements for Electric Boilers. . . . . . . 213

General.. . . . . . . . . 213

PEB-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 213

PEB-2 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 213

PEB-3 Optional Requirements for the Boiler Pressure Vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

Materials.. . . . . . . . 213

PEB-5 General.. . . . . . . . . 213

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 214

PEB-8 General.. . . . . . . . . 214

PEB-9 Welding.. . . . . . . . . 214

PEB-10 Inspection Openings.214

PEB-11 Feedwater Supply.. 214

PEB-12 Bottom Blowoff.. . . 214

PEB-13 Water Level Indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

PEB-14 Pressure Gages.. . . 215

PEB-15 Pressure Relief Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

PEB-16 Automatic Devices.. 215

x

PEB-17 Hydrostatic Test.. . . 215

PEB-18 Inspection and Stamping of Boilers. . . . . . . . 215

PEB-19 Manufacturer's Data Report for Electric Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

Part PVG Requirements for Organic Fluid Vaporizers217

General.. . . . . . . . . 217

PVG-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 217

Materials.. . . . . . . . 217

PVG-5 General.. . . . . . . . . 217

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 217

PVG-8 General.. . . . . . . . . 217

PVG-9 General Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

PVG-10 Gage Glasses.. . . . . 217

PVG-11 Drain Valves.. . . . . 217

PVG-12 Pressure Relief Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Part PFE Requirements for Feedwater Economizers. 219

PFE-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 219

PFE-2 Design.. . . . . . . . . . 219

PFE-2.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

PFE-2.2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

PFE-3 Pressure Relief.. . . . 219

PFE-3.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

PFE-3.2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

PFE-3.3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

PFE-4 Materials.. . . . . . . . 219

Part PTFH Requirements for Liquid Phase Thermal Fluid Heaters . . . . . . . . . 220

General.. . . . . . . . . 220

PTFH-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 220

PTFH-2 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 220

PTFH-3 Thermal Fluids.. . . . 220

Materials.. . . . . . . . 220

PTFH-5 General.. . . . . . . . . 220

Design.. . . . . . . . . . 220

PTFH-8 General Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

PTFH-9 Appurtenances and External Piping. . . . . . . . 220

PTFH-10 Provisions for Thermal Expansion of the Heat Transfer Medium . . . . . 221

PTFH-11 Instrumentation.. . . 221

PTFH-12 Overpressure Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

PTFH-13 Temperature-Limiting Controls. . . . . . . . . . . 223

Part PHRSG Requirements for Heat Recovery Steam Generators . . . . . . . . . . . 224

PHRSG-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 224

PHRSG-2 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 224

PHRSG-3 Requirements for Superheater and Reheater Condensate Removal

Connections.. . . . 224

PHRSG-3.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

PHRSG-3.2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

xi

PHRSG-3.3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

PHRSG-3.4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

PHRSG-3.5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

PHRSG-4 Desuperheater Drain Pots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

PHRSG-5 Certification.. . . . . . 225

Mandatory Appendix III Criteria for Reapplication of a Certification Mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

III-1 Introduction.. . . . . 227

III-2 Conditions.. . . . . . . 227

III-3 Rules.. . . . . . . . . . . 227

Mandatory Appendix IV Localthinareasin Cylindrical Shellsandin Spherical Segments of

Heads.. . . . . . . . 230

IV-1 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 230

IV-2 Cylindrical Shells.. . 230

IV-3 Spherical Segments of Heads. . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Mandatory Appendix V Additional Rules for Boilers Fabricated by Riveting . . . . . . . . . . . 234

V-1 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 234

V-2 Fireboxes, Combustion Chambers, and Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

V-2.1 General.. . . . . . . . . 234

V-2.2 Plain Circular Furnaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

V-2.3 Ring-Reinforced Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

V-2.4 Corrugated Furnaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

V-2.5 Combined Plain Circular and Corrugated Type234

V-2.6 Attachment of Furnaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

V-2.7 Fireboxes and Waterlegs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

V-3 Design of Stay Pins and Riveted Stay Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

V-4 Staying of Upper Segments of Tube Heads by Steel Structural Shapes . 235

V-5 Riveted Attachments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

V-6 Domes.. . . . . . . . . . 237

Mandatory Appendix VI EstablishingGoverning Code Editions,Addenda, and Cases forBoilers

and Replacement Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

VI-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 238

VI-2 Design.. . . . . . . . . . 238

VI-3 Materials.. . . . . . . . 238

VI-4 Fabrication.. . . . . . 238

VI-5 Examination.. . . . . 238

VI-6 Inspection.. . . . . . . 238

VI-7 Testing.. . . . . . . . . 239

VI-8 Overpressure Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

VI-9 Field Assembly.. . . . 239

VI-10 Certification.. . . . . . 239

Mandatory Appendix VII Alternate Methods for Applying the ASME Certification Mark . . . . 240

VII-1 Requirements for Alternate Methods. . . . . . . 240

Mandatory Appendix VIII Local Heating of Welds in Cylindrical Components of P-No. 15E

Materials When Using Electric Resistance Heating . . . . . . . . . . . 241

VIII-1 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 241

VIII-2 General.. . . . . . . . . 241

xii

VIII-3 Terminology for Local Heating. . . . . . . . . . . 241

VIII-4 Local Circumferential Band Heating. . . . . . . . 242

VIII-4.1 Soak Band.. . . . . . . 242

VIII-4.2 Heated Band.. . . . . 242

VIII-4.3 Gradient Control Band. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

VIII-4.4 Axial Temperature Gradient. . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

VIII-5 Measurement of Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . 244

VIII-5.1 Temperature-Indicating Crayons and Paints. . 244

VIII-5.2 Selection of Thermocouples. . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

VIII-5.3 Installation of Thermocouples. . . . . . . . . . . . 244

VIII-5.4 Control Thermocouples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

VIII-5.5 Monitoring Thermocouples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

VIII-6 Design of the Heating Process. . . . . . . . . . . . 244

VIII-6.1 Preheat.. . . . . . . . . 245

VIII-6.2 Postheating.. . . . . . 245

VIII-6.3 Postweld Heat Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

VIII-6.4 Special Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

VIII-7 The Thermal Cycle, PWHT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

VIII-8 Insulation.. . . . . . . 252

VIII-9 Quality Assurance System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

VIII-9.1 Introduction.. . . . . 252

VIII-9.2 Process Control.. . . 252

VIII-9.3 Documentation.. . . . 252

VIII-9.4 Control of Inspection, Measuring, and Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

VIII-9.5 Training.. . . . . . . . 253

VIII-9.6 Servicing.. . . . . . . . 253

VIII-10 Other Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Nonmandatory Appendix A Explanation of the Code Containing Matter Not Mandatory Unless

Specifically Referred to in the Rules of the Code . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

Efficiency of Joints.. 257

A-1 Efficiency of Riveted Joints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

A-2 Single-Riveted Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

A-3 Double-Riveted Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

A-4 Double-Riveted Buttstrap and Double-Strap Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

A-5 Triple-Riveted Buttstrap and Double-Strap Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

A-6 Quadruple-Riveted Buttstrap and Double-Strap Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

Braced and Stayed Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

A-8.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

Method of Checking Pressure Relief Valve Capacity by Measuring

Maximum Amount of Fuel That Can Be Burned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

A-12.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

A-13 Example 1.. . . . . . . 260

A-14 Example 2.. . . . . . . 260

A-15 Example 3.. . . . . . . 260

A-16 Example 4.. . . . . . . 260

A-17.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

xiii

Automatic Gage Glasses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

A-18.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

Fusible Plugs.. . . . . 266

A-19.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

A-20.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

A-21.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

Proof Tests to Establish Maximum Allowable Working Pressure . . . . . 267

A-22.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

A-24 Table PG-23.1.. . . . 271

A-25 Table PG-23.2.. . . . 271

A-26 Table PG-23.3.. . . . 271

A-27 Table PG-23.4.. . . . 271

A-28 Figures G and CS-1 Through CS-6. . . . . . . . . 271

Suggested Rules Covering Existing Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

A-30.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

Pressure Relief Valves for Power Boilers. . . . 271

A-44.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

A-45.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

A-46.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

A-48.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

A-63.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

A-64 Repairs to Existing Boilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

Examples of Methods of Computation of Openings in Vessel Shells . . . 272

A-65.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

A-66.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

A-67.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

A-68.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

A-69.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

A-70.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

Examples of Computation of Allowable Loading on Structural

Attachments to Tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

A-71.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

A-72.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

A-73.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

A-74.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

Computations of Typical Nozzle Fittings Attached by Rivets . . . . . . . . 288

A-75 Example.. . . . . . . . 288

Preheating.. . . . . . . 291

A-101 Heating and Cooling Rates for Postweld Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . 291

Rounded Indication Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

A-250 Acceptance Standard for Radiographically Determined Rounded

Indications in Welds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

Methods for Magnetic Particle Examination (MT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

A-260.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

Methods for Liquid Penetrant Examination (PT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

A-270.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

xiv

Quality Control System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

A-301 General.. . . . . . . . . 299

A-302 Outline of Features to Be Included in the Written Description ofthe Quality

Control System.. 300

A-311 Laboratory, Personnel, and Test Requirements for Capacity Certification 301

A-317 Cylindrical Components Under Internal Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

Data Report Forms and Guides. . . . . . . . . . . 303

A-350 Guides for Completing Manufacturers' Data Report Forms . . . . . . . . . 303

Codes, Standards, and Specifications Referenced in Text . . . . . . . . . . . 347

A-360 Referenced Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

Sample Calculations for External Pressure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

A-381.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

A-382.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350

A-383.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

Guidance for the Use of U.S. Customary and SI Units in the ASME Boiler and

Pressure Vessel Code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

A-391 Use of Units in Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

A-392 Guidelines Used to Develop SI Equivalents. . . 353

A-393 Soft Conversion Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

Nonmandatory Appendix B Positive Material Identification Practice. . 356

B-1 Introduction.. . . . . 356

B-2 Definitions.. . . . . . . 356

B-3 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . 356

B-4 Basis.. . . . . . . . . . . 356

B-5 Materials.. . . . . . . . 357

B-6 Written Practice.. . . 357

B-7 Method.. . . . . . . . . 357

B-8 Acceptance Criteria.358

B-8.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

B-8.2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

B-8.3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

B-8.4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

B-9 Sampling Plan.. . . . 358

B-9.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

B-9.2 Exempt.. . . . . . . . . 358

B-10 Documentation.. . . . 358

B-10.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

B-10.2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

B-10.3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

B-10.4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

B-11 Identification.. . . . . 359

Nonmandatory Appendix C Local Heating of Welds in Cylindrical Components of P-No. 15E

Materials When Using Electric Resistance Heating . . . . . . . . . . . 360

Nonmandatory Appendix D Design Guidelines for Corrosion, Erosion, and Steam Oxidation of

Boiler Tubes.. . 361

D-1 Introduction.. . . . . 361

xv

D-2 Corrosion — Fireside of Waterwall Boiler Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

D-2.1 Influence of Chlorine on Furnace-Wall Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

D-2.2 Effect of Nox Emission Control Technology. . 362

D-2.3 Acid Dew-Point Corrosion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

D-2.4 Corrosion — Fireside of Reheater and Superheater Tubes . . . . . . . . . 363

D-2.5 Steam-Side Oxidation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

D-3 Ash-Particle Impact Erosion. . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

Nonmandatory Appendix E Alternative Method for Ultrasonic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

E-1 Introduction.. . . . . 365

E-2 Examination Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

E-3 Demonstration Standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

E-4 Procedure Qualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

E-5 Initial Examination.. 365

E-6 Personnel Qualification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

E-7 Flaw Sizing.. . . . . . 366

E-8 Flaw Evaluation and Acceptance Criteria. . . . 372

Nonmandatory Appendix F Design Guidelines for Dissimilar Metal Welds Between CSEF and

Austenitic Stainless Steels. . . . . . . . . . . 373

F-1 Introduction.. . . . . 373

F-2 Best Practice Guidelines for Design and Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

F-2.1 Location.. . . . . . . . 373

F-2.2 Loading.. . . . . . . . . 373

F-3 Fabrication.. . . . . . 374

F-3.1 Filler Metals.. . . . . 374

F-3.2 Transition Pieces.. . 375

F-4 Alternative Weld Geometries for Dmws. . . . . 375

F-5 Welding Technique.375

F-6 Postweld Heat Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

F-7 Postweld Surface Profiling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

F-8 Tube-to-Tube Butt Welds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

F-9 Thick-Section Welds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

F-10 Attachments to Piping and Headers. . . . . . . . 376

F-11 Attachments to Tubing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

F-12 Thermowells.. . . . . 377

F-13 Steam Flow Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

F-14 Drain Lines.. . . . . . 377

F-15 Postconstruction and Monitoring. . . . . . . . . 377

Nonmandatory Appendix G Guide to the Relocation of Requirements for Capacity Certification of

Pressure Relief Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

G-1 General.. . . . . . . . . 379

Figures

PG-28 Maximum Internal Projection of Welded Access or Inspection Openings 24

PG-31 Some Acceptable Types of Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers . . . . . . . . 28

PG-33.1 Nomenclature and Equations for Reinforced Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

PG-33.2 SomeRepresentative ConfigurationsDescribing theDimensions te, h, and d 34

xvi

PG-33.3 Chart for Determining Value of F. . . . . . . . . 35

PG-38.1-1 Example of Two Openings Spaced With Limits of Reinforcement

Overlapping.. . . . 37

PG-38.2-1 Example of More Than Two Openings Spaced With Limits of

Reinforcement Overlapping. . . . . . . . . . . . 37

PG-38.4-1 Illustrations of the Rule Given in PG-38.4. . . 38

PG-42.1 Welding End Transitions Maximum Envelope. 41

PG-46.2 Acceptable Proportions for Ends of Through-Stays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

PG-52.1 Diagram for Determining the Efficiency of Longitudinal and Diagonal

Ligaments Between Openings in Cylindrical Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

PG-52.2 Example of Tube Spacing With Pitch of Holes Equal in Every Row . . . 46

PG-52.3 Example of Tube Spacing With Pitch of Holes Unequal in Every

Second Row.. . . . 46

PG-52.4 Example of Tube Spacing With Pitch of Holes Varying in Every Second

and Third Row.. 47

PG-52.5 Example of Tube Spacing With Tube Holes on Diagonal Lines . . . . . . . 47

PG-52.6 Diagram for Determining Equivalent Longitudinal Efficiency of Diagonal

Ligaments Between Openings in Cylindrical Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

PG-53.2.2-1 Example of Tube Spacing That Does Not Form a Definite Pattern . . . . 49

PG-56.1.2 Method of Computation of Attachments to Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

PG-56.2 Chart for Determining Load Factor, Lf. . . . . . 51

PG-58.2-1 Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Drum-Type Boilers . . . . . . . . . 52

PG-58.2-2 Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Isolable Economizers Located in

Feedwater Piping and Isolable Superheaters in Main Steam Piping

(Boiler Pressure Relief Valves, Blowoff, and Miscellaneous Piping for

Boiler Proper Not Shown for Clarity). . . . 53

PG-58.2-3 Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Reheaters and Nonintegral

Separately Fired Superheaters. . . . . . . . . 54

PG-58.2-4 Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — An Example of Forced-Flow Steam

Generators With No Fixed Steam and Waterline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

PG-58.2-5 Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — An Example of Steam Separator

Type Forced-Flow Steam Generators With No Fixed Steam and

Waterline.. . . . . 56

PG-58.2-6 Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Firetube Boiler . . . . . . . . . . . 57

PG-59.1 Typical Boiler Bushings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

PG-60.3.7 Y-Type Globe Valve.63

PG-60.3.9 Typical Arrangement of Steam and Water Connections for a Water Column 63

PG-67.4 Requirements for Overpressure Protection Forced-Flow Steam Generator 66

PG-80 Maximum Permissible Deviation From a Circular Form, e, for Cylindrical

Parts Under External Pressure. . . . . . . . . 87

PG-105.1 Official Certification Mark to Denote the American Society of Mechanical

Engineers’ Standard for Boilers. . . . . . . . . 91

PG-106 Form of Stamping.. 92

PW-9.3.1 Butt Welding of Plates of Unequal Thickness. 101

PW-9.3.3 Heads Attached to Shells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

PW-9.4 Prohibited Welded Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

PW-15 Examples of Weld Strength Calculations. . . . 106

xvii

PW-16.1 Some Acceptable Types of Welded Nozzles and Other Connections to

Shells, Drums, and Headers. . . . . . . . . . . 107

PW-16.2 SomeAcceptable Forms ofWelds for Lugs,Hangers, andBrackets on Shells,

Drums, and Headers (See PG-55). . . . . . . 111

PW-16.8 Some Acceptable Designs for Partial-Penetration-Weld-Type Nozzles and

Other Connections Designed for 900°F (480°C) or Higher Service . . 113

PW-17-1 Forged Flat Head With Integral Butt-Welded Hubbed Flange . . . . . . . . 115

PW-19.4(a) Some Acceptable Types of Diagonal Braces for Installation by Welding 115

PW-19.4(b) Unacceptable Types of Diagonal Braces for Installation by Welding . . . 116

PW-53.1 Test Specimens From Longitudinal Welded Test Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

PW-53.2 Method of Forming Longitudinal Test Plates. 143

PW-53.3(a) Details of Tension Test Specimens. . . . . . . . . 144

PW-53.3(b) Details of Bend Test Specimens. . . . . . . . . . . 145

PR-13-1 Typical Plate Edge Beveled for Sealing by Calking in a Riveted Joint . . 150

PR-15.4-1 Location of Seams in Inside and Outside Calking Boundaries . . . . . . . 151

PR-17.2-1 Boundary of Reinforcing Plate on Outside and Inside of Drum . . . . . . 151

PR-20.2-1 Allowable Welding of Plate Edges at Ends of Buttstraps . . . . . . . . . . . 152

PB-15 Some Acceptable Types of Brazed Joints. . . . 157

PL-2.2-1 Steam Locomotive Boiler With Dome Throttle162

PL-2.2-2 Steam Locomotive Boiler With Front-End Throttle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

PL-20.4.1-1 Round Riveted Plate.165

PL-20.4.2-1 Diamond Riveted Plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

PL-20.5-1 Manhole Frame.. . . 166

PL-21.4.1-1 Steam Dome Top Flange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

PL-27.5-1 Examples of Doubler Attachment Methods. . . 172

PL-27.6.3-1 Double-Riveted Lap Seam in Stayed Area. . . . 173

PL-27.6.3-2 Double-Fillet-Welded Lap Seam in Stayed Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

PL-27.7-1 Upper Corner of Firebox. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

PL-28.2-1 Some Examples of Acceptable Mudring Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

PL-30.4.2-1 Fillet-Welded Staybolts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

PL-33-1 Example of Crown Bar Installation. . . . . . . . 177

PL-36.2.1-1 Support Perimeters.178

PL-36.5-1 Typical Forms of Diagonal Braces. . . . . . . . . 179

PL-36.7-1 Typical Forms of Gusset Braces. . . . . . . . . . . 180

PL-36.9-1 Tee Iron.. . . . . . . . 181

PL-36.9-2 Tee-Iron Support Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

PL-39.1-1 Arch Tubes.. . . . . . 183

PL-39.2.1-1 Circulators.. . . . . . . 184

PL-39.2.1-2 Circulator Attachment Section Views. . . . . . . 184

PL-39.3-1 Example of Thermic Syphon Installation. . . . 185

PWT-11 Examples of Acceptable Forms of Tube Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

PFT-12.1 Some Acceptable Forms of Tube Attachment on Firetube Boilers . . . . 194

PFT-17.2 Acceptable Type of Ring-Reinforced Furnace. 195

PFT-18.1 Morison Furnace.. . 196

PFT-19 Connection Between Plain and Corrugated Furnace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

PFT-20 Welding Ogee Ring.. 197

xviii

PFT-21 Some Acceptable Methods of Forming Waterleg Joints by Welding . . . 198

PFT-23.1 Stayed Wrapper Sheet of Locomotive-Type Boiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

PFT-25 Example of Staying of Heads Adjacent to Cylindrical Furnaces . . . . . . 201

PFT-26.3-1 Area Supported by Stay Defined in PFT-26.3. 203

PFT-27.2-1 Maximum Spacing as Defined in PFT-27.2. . . 204

PFT-27.11-1 Pitch of Staybolts Adjacent to Upper Corners of Fireboxes . . . . . . . . . 204

PFT-32 Measurements for Determining Stresses in Diagonal Stays . . . . . . . . . 205

PFT-46.1 Spacing and Weld Details for Wall-Support Lugs Set in Pairs onHorizontal￾Return Tubular Boilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

PFT-46.2 Welded Bracket Connection for Horizontal-Return Tubular Boilers . . . 208

PVG-12 Constant, C, for Vapor Related to Ratio of Specific Heats (k = cp/cv) . . 218

PTFH-9.1-1 Liquid Phase Thermal Fluid Heater: External Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

PHRSG-4 Some Acceptable Desuperheater Spraywater Protection Device

Arrangements.. . 226

Guide for Completing the Certificate of Conformance for Reapplication of

the Certification Mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

IV-2-1 Symbols.. . . . . . . . 231

IV-3-1 Blend Requirements.232

IV-3-2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

IV-3-3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

IV-3-4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

IV-3-5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

V-2.2-1 Riveted Circumferential Joint for Circular Furnace Plates Over 5∕8 in.

(16 mm).. . . . . . 235

V-2.2-2 Proper Location of Staybolts Adjacent to Longitudinal Joint in Furnace

Sheet.. . . . . . . . 235

V-4-1 Staying of Head With Steel Angles in Tubular Boiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

V-5-1 Method of Riveting Manhole Frames to Shells or Drums With Two Rows of

Rivets.. . . . . . . . 237

VIII-3-1 Definitions of Terms for Local Circumferential Band Heating of Cylindrical

Component Welds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

VIII-3-2 Definitions of Terms for Local Circumferential Band With Branch

Connection Attachment Weld to Cylindrical Component . . . . . . . . . 243

VIII-6.3.4-1 Location of Thermocouples (Monitoring and Control) for Pipe Sizes Up to

6 NPS (150 DN) and One Control Zone. . . 246

VIII-6.3.4-2 Location of Thermocouples (Monitoring and Control) for Pipe Sizes 8 NPS

Through 12 NPS (200 DN Through 300 DN) and Two Control Zones 247

VIII-6.3.4-3 Location of Thermocouples (Monitoring and Control)for Pipe Sizes 14NPS

Through 30 NPS (350 DN Through 750 DN) and Four Control Zones 248

VIII-6.3.4-4 Location of Monitoring Thermocouples for Branch Nozzle or Attachment 249

VIII-6.4.5-1 Example of One Approach When the Heated Band from Weld Requiring

PWHT Intersects Weld Not Requiring PWHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

A-2-1 Single-Riveted Lap Joint, Longitudinal or Circumferential . . . . . . . . . . 257

A-3-1 Double-Riveted Lap Joint, Longitudinal or Circumferential . . . . . . . . . 258

A-4-1 Double-Riveted Buttstrap and Double-Strap Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

A-5-1 Triple-Riveted Buttstrap and Double-Strap Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

A-6-1 Quadruple-Riveted Buttstrap and Double-Strap Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

A-6-2 Joints That May Be Used to Avoid Eccentric Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

xix

A-8 Detail Illustrations Showing Application of PG-48 and PFT-27 to the

Staying of Boilers.262

A-19 Typical Forms of Fusible Plugs. . . . . . . . . . . 266

A-66 Example for Typical Nozzle Computations. . . 273

A-67 Example for Typical Nozzle Computations. . . 275

A-68 Example for Typical Nozzle Computations. . . 276

A-69 Example for Typical Nozzle Computations. . . 278

A-70.1 Example for Typical Nozzle Computations. . . 282

A-70.2 Example for Typical Nozzle Computations. . . 284

A-71 Structural Attachment With Radial Load. . . . 286

A-72 Structural Attachment With Eccentric Load. . 286

A-73 Structural Attachment With Moment Load. . . 287

A-74 Structural Attachment on Tube Bend. . . . . . . 287

A-75-1 Example of Nozzle Attached by Riveting. . . . 288

A-250.3.4-1 Aligned Rounded Indications. . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

A-250.3.4-2 Groups of Aligned Rounded Indications. . . . . 294

A-250.3.6-1 Charts for t 1∕8 in. (3 mm) to 1∕4 in. (6 mm), Inclusive . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

A-250.3.6-2 Charts for t Over 1∕4 in. (6 mm) to 3∕8 in. (10 mm), Inclusive . . . . . . . . 295

A-250.3.6-3 Charts for t Over 3∕8 in. (10 mm) to 3∕4 in. (19 mm), Inclusive . . . . . . . 296

A-250.3.6-4 Charts for t Over 3∕4 in. (19 mm) to 2 in. (50 mm), Inclusive . . . . . . . . 296

A-250.3.6-5 Charts for t Over 2 in. (50 mm) to 4 in. (100 mm), Inclusive . . . . . . . 297

A-250.3.6-6 Charts for t Over 4 in. (100 mm). . . . . . . . . 298

E-7-1 Single Indications.. . 367

E-7-2 Multiple Planar Flaws Oriented in Plane Normal to Pressure-Retaining

Surface.. . . . . . . 368

E-7-3 Surface and Subsurface Flaws. . . . . . . . . . . . 369

E-7-4 Nonaligned Coplanar Flaws in PlaneNormalto Pressure-Retaining Surface

(Illustrative Flaw Configurations). . . . . . . 370

E-7-5 Multiple Aligned Planar Flaws. . . . . . . . . . . . 371

F-2.2-1 Difference in Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion for Grade 91 and

Common Nickel-Base Filler Metals. . . . . . 374

F-4-1 Examples of Improved Performance DMW Joint Designs . . . . . . . . . . . 376

Tables

PG-4-1 Standard Units for Use in Equations. . . . . . . 2

PG-19 Post Cold-Forming Strain Limits and Heat-Treatment Requirements for

Austenitic Materials and Nickel-Based Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

PG-20 Post Cold-Forming Strain Limits and Heat-Treatment Requirements . . 14

PG-26 Weld Strength Reduction Factors to Be Applied When Calculating

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure or Minimum Required

Thickness of Components Fabricated With a Longitudinal Seam Weld 19

PG-39 Minimum Number of Threads Per Connection39

PG-56.2 Tube Attachment Angle Design Factor, K. . . . 50

PG-67.5 Supercritical Correction Factor, Ksc. . . . . . . . 69

PG-67.5M Supercritical Correction Factor, Ksc. . . . . . . . 71

PG-68.7 Superheat Correction Factor, Ksh. . . . . . . . . . 73

PG-68.7M Superheat Correction Factor, Ksh. . . . . . . . . . 76

xx

PW-11 Required Volumetric Examination of Welded Butt Joints . . . . . . . . . . . 104

PW-33 Alignment Tolerance of Sections to Be Butt Welded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

PW-38-1 Recommended Preheat Temperatures for Welding of Pressure Parts and

Attachments.. . . 120

PW-39-1 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 1. . . . . . . . . . . 123

PW-39-2 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 3. . . . . . . . . . . 124

PW-39-3 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 4. . . . . . . . . . 125

PW-39-4 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 5A and P-No. 5B126

PW-39-5 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 15E. . . . . . . . . 127

PW-39-6 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 6. . . . . . . . . . . 128

PW-39-7 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 7. . . . . . . . . . . 128

PW-39-8 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 8. . . . . . . . . . . 129

PW-39-9 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 10H. . . . . . . . . 129

PW-39-10 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 10I. . . . . . . . . . 129

PW-39-11 Mandatory Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment of Pressure Parts

and Attachments — P-No. 31. . . . . . . . . . 130

PW-39-12 Mandatory Requirements

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ASME BPVC.I-2021

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